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What Is an F1 Cockapoo? Types & Generations Explained

Written by: Nicole Cosgrove

Last Updated on April 11, 2024 by Dogster Team


What Is an F1 Cockapoo? Types & Generations Explained

Despite being a mixed breed, Cockapoos are one of the most popular breeds in the country. They’re a cross between a Cocker Spaniel and a Poodle, most commonly of the miniature variety.

If you’ve been looking into Cockapoos, you’ve probably seen F1 Cockapoos. What does this mean? An F1 is a first-generation crossbreed of a Cocker Spaniel and Poodle.


Understanding the Generations of Cockapoos

As mentioned, the first generation of Cockapoos is the first cross between two purebred parent breeds, the Cocker Spaniel and Poodle. The litter is already mixed, so the future generations will always be a Cockapoo mix.

After F1, F1b is one Cockapoo parent and one Cocker Spaniel parent, followed by F2, which is two Cockapoo parents.

The F followed by a number is placed after Cockapoo dogs and litters to reference the crossing or mixture. Essentially, it tells you the ancestry of the litter or dog, but that shouldn’t be mistaken for the quality of the breeding.

Here’s a quick breakdown:
  • F1: A purebred Cocker Spaniel and purebred Poodle bred together to create a Cockapoo,
  • F1b: A purebred Poodle or Cocker Spaniel bred with an F1 Cockapoo.
  • F2: Two F1 Cockapoos bred together.
  • F2b: A purebred Cocker Spaniel or Poodle bred with an F2 Cockapoo or an F1b Cockapoo and an F1 Cockapoo.
  • F3: Two F2 Cockapoos bred together.
  • F4: Two F3 Cockapoos bred together.

The numbers continue through the generations.

These distinctions may be confusing, but it’s the easiest way to understand whether the puppy is a cross of mixed-breed parents, purebred parents, or a Cockapoo crossed with a purebred parent breed.

Female cockapoo puppy training
Image by: Robyn-May, Shutterstock

What Is a Throwback?

There’s a lot of variation in individual Cockapoos, especially once you get into the second generation of mixed-breed parents. They may look more like a parent breed than a conventional Cockapoo—these are known as throwbacks.

A throwback is a puppy with the “grandfather effect,” due to its resemblance to a purebred parent breed. If a puppy will look like a parent breed, it will only start to show when they’re around six or eight weeks old.

What Is Back-Crossing?

Cockapoos are generally a Cocker Spaniel and Poodle or two Cockapoos, but there is a practice called back-crossing. This is mating a Cockapoo with a parent breed. This is denoted by the “b” designation.,

An F1b is an F1 Cockapoo bred with a Cocker Spaniel or Poodle parent. An F2b is an F2 Cockapoo mated with a Cocker Spaniel or Poodle. This is usually done to continue the Cockapoo look and discourage the grandfather effect.

Black Cockapoo on the field
Image by: Kimberley Rennie, Shutterstock

Does Generation Matter?

In short, not really. You’re still getting a mixed-breed dog, no matter what. They may look different, depending on the influence of the parents’ genetics. The important thing is working with a reputable breeder who’s careful to continue good health and temperament, rather than a breeder who’s taking shortcuts to make a quick buck.

divider-dog paw


The F1 designation for a Cockapoo merely indicated a first-generation cross-breed between Cocker Spaniel and Poodle parents. The rest of the generations are designated with F to indicate what generation and what cross. But whichever you choose, you should have a loving, sweet, and cute pup.

Featured Image Credit: mountaintreks, Shutterstock

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