List of Natural sources of vitamins and minerals

This is a dedicated place for all of your questions and answers about Raw Diets. There are also some really cool groups like "Raw Fed" on the topic you can join. This forum is for people who already know they like the raw diet or sincerely want to learn more. Please remember that you are receiving advice from peers and not professionals. If you have specific health-related questions about your dog's diet, please contact your vet!


Barked: Tue Apr 2, '13 11:28pm PST 
I did not came with all this information on my own. I found this on a forum,can't remember where or who wrote it. But its not mine. I don't know if it is here on dogster so i decided to post it here. I hope it is useful and truthful too.
-------------------------------------------------------------- -÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
Food - all dogs need.
Dogs who are carnivores, obtain ALL of the vitamins, minerals, fatty acids amino acids they need from a raw diet of animal source. Below are just a few examples of where you will find such nutrients. The country you live in and the availability of certain food will vary depending upon season and where you live. Please remember that organs such as liver and kidneys are only necessary in very small amounts and should ideally not exceed 5% of the diet (weekly, monthly, however you choose to do it) It is important to vary the diet and also to provide some of it fresh.

The raw diet was designed for carnivores by an expert called Mother Nature whose history is as long as evolution unlike the so called Complete diets whose formulas are ever-changing in an effort to be 'all your dog will ever need'.

Starting with a brief look at vitamins


VITAMIN A - Diets poor in animal fats and products decrease vitamin A bioavailability by limiting absorption and utilization

Vitamin A is formed from yellow carotene and is found in such foods as egg yolk, fish roe, liver and kidney, this vitamin is necessary for the growth and general well being of young animals in particular, in excess it could affect growth and bone development. Low vitamin A may lead to reduced bone mass.

Butter, liver and egg yolk contain at least 0.15mgs of retinoids per 1.75 - 70z (50-198g)

VITAMIN D - While there are both plant and animal derived sources of vitamin D, only animal sources are cholesterol-based and can be converted in the body to its fully active form, natural or D3.

Animal products constitute the bulk source of vitamin D that occurs naturally from salt water fish such as herring, salmon sardines and fish liver oil, vitamin D is also derived from egg yolk, veal beef and butter.

VITAMIN E - vitamin E helps develop muscle and process fat.
Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin found in food s of animal origin such as red meat, organs such as heart pancreas and liver and egg yolk,

Raw eggs provide a full spectrum of vitamin E and selenium. For a 50 pound dog an egg, complete with shell, every 3 days is enough. A free range organic egg contains approximately 1mg of tocopherol and 0.1mg of gamma tocopherol

VITAMIN K -technically not a vitamin K2 is found in organs such a liver, organic egg yolk and fish.

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS all B-complex vitamins need to be consumed together as one B vitamin alone is ineffectual, B-complex are also known as coenzymes or cofactors. A coenzyme is a substance necessary for the action of enzymes

CHOLINE -By definition choline is not a vitamin but it is often seen as a member of the B complex, choline is an essential nutrient which must be obtained from the diet. Without choline, many fat-based nutrients and waste products could not pass in and out of cells.

The organic egg yolk is the richest known source of choline, other good sources include beef liver, beef and fish such as salmon and cod. This essential nutrient is found in typically fat high foods for a reason. A deficiency of choline leads to the inability to synthesise fat as well induce DNA damage and cell death [apoptosis] in peripheral lymphocytes

BIOTIN - is a water soluble component of the B-complex which is found in all living tissue. Biotin is necessary for maintaining a healthy coat and skin, sebaceous glands and nails as well as nerves, growth, bone, digestion, muscle function and fetal development.

Biotin assists in the metabolism of protein and fats, especially unsaturated fats and is found in offal such a tripe, salmon, and meat such as pork, with egg yolk and beef liver being especially rich sources

FOLATE - Vitamin B9 is an obsolete name for folic acid [folicin, folate] The term folic acid and folate are often used interchangeably. Folate usually refers to forms found in the body and food whilst folic acid usually refers to the form found in supplements and fortified processed food.

Foods rich in folate are liver, kidney, tripe, egg yolk and in smaller amounts meat (rabbit has a similar amount of folate to B12) Folicin deficiency is associated with poor growth, abnormal structure of hyaline cartilage and retarded ossification.

THIAMIN Vitamin B1 - Thiamin is essential for growth and normal functioning of the digestive system, nerves, muscle, skin and heart, where it is stored in very small amounts. Thiamin is also required for enzymes involved in glucose metabolism.

Thiamin is found in meat, egg yolk, organs, heart etc with pork being one of the best sources.

RIBOFLAVIN Vitamin B3 - Riboflavin is essential for cellular energy production, metabolism of protein and fat, growth, antibody and red cell formation as well as contributing to the overall health of the coat and organs such as the eyes and skin

Heart, kidneys and liver are especially rich sources of riboflavin, it is also present in fish, egg yolk and meat. Riboflavin deficiency is rarely found in isolation but rather in conjunction with deficiencies of other water soluble B-complex vitamins

NIACIN Vitamin B3 - Niacin is important for energy production, joint function, range of motion, increased muscle strength and endurance. Niacin promotes growth, proper functioning of the nervous system, maintenance of healthy skin, tongue and digestive system. Also in the form of NAD or NADP, niacin converts proteins and fats into usable energy

Niacin is especially found in abundance in red meat [tongue is a very good source] as well as poultry and fish

PANTOTHENIC ACID Vitamin B5 - a substance which enhances or is necessary for the action of enzymes, Pantothenic acid assists in the release of energy from fats, protein and carbs. Pantothenic acids aids in the utilization of some vitamins, stimulates growth and helps with the formation of antibodies, wound healing and drug detoxification

Pantothenic acid is found in raw animal products including fish, red meat, liver, egg yolk and chicken, meaty bones etc

Despite being widely distributed in food B5 has been described as 'hard to obtain because it is susceptible to destruction by processing, cooking and freezing so it is important to supply a certain amount of fresh food in the raw diet

PYRIDOXINE Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine is involved in over a hundred enzymatic reactions. B6 deficiency will result in a depressed immune system in antibody related and cell-mediated immunity, the numbers of white cells are depleted causing a reduction in quality and quantity of antibodies produced as well as reduced thymic hormone activity

The most nutrient dense sources of B6 include chicken, fish, liver [especially calf’s liver], pork and eggs with smaller but adequate amounts found in other meat and offal. B6 is needed for the production of the essential amino acid tryptophan. Substantial amounts of B6 can be lost through processing and cooking [60-95%] around 38% from freezing, so again the inclusion of a certain amount of fresh food in the raw diet is useful

COBALAMIN Vitamin B12 - is know as the red vitamin as it is only found in food of animal origin

B12 is found in organs, especially kidney, muscle meat, poultry and fish, ox tongue is also a very good source.

Liver has long been a treatment for anemia because it is rich in heme iron (the organic iron in animal foods] This type of iron is 5 times more easily absorbed than non-heme iron. Pork liver contains the highest amount of iron

Minerals and amino acids to follow
Reply With Quote
07-14-2011, 11:20 AM #2
Senior Member
Join Date
Mar 2010
VITAMIN C Ascorbic acid

Whilst vitamin C is not an essential vitamin required to be supplied in the diet it is still worth a mention

Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin. Most animals, including dogs, produce sufficient amounts for their own requirement, the dogs glandular system is different to that of a human, and the raw fed dog makes vitamin C by its liver using trace minerals in its diet. Ascorbic acid is produced in the liver from two sugars, either glucose or galactose which is burnt for energy.

Ascorbic acid is necessary for the synthesis of the collagen in connective tissue, which is a protein forming the main tissue that strengthens blood vessels, keeps bones, tendons, ligaments and cartilage strong and connects the organs together. The capillary structure and proper formation of the connective tissue depend on the collagen, in addition it is needed to maintain healthy gum structure and to grow and repair skin and acts as an antioxidant.

Vitamin C is involved in the hydroxylation of the amino acid Proline to form hydroxyproline in the synthesis of collagen, which is a protein substance on which the integrity of cellular structure in all fibrous tissues depends. Collagen is produced by bone forming cells during skeletal growth and development, it is the glue that strengthens many parts of the body.

Puppies will only begin to produce their own vitamin C once they are eating solid food, until then they will get all they need from the mother as a healthy lactating bitch's glandular system naturally increases production of vitamin C resulting in the milk supply containing 4 times more vitamin C than is in the blood.

Animal derived sources of vitamin C include tripe, liver [especially chicken liver], giblets and brain is very rich in vitamin C [poultry necks provide chondroitin which is also used to build and maintain cartilage and collagen tissue in the joints]

Ascorbic acid is necessary for the conversion of folic acid into folinic acid [aka citrovorum factor] which is also necessary for nucleic acid synthesis

Other roles of ascorbic acid in the body include the biosynthesis of the amino acid carnitine and the catecholamines that regulate the nervous system. It also helps the body to absorb iron and to break down histamine, the inflammatory element of many allergic reactions.

Vitamin C increases the synthesis of a natural anti viral substance and stimulates the activity of key immune cells

Unless inadequate amounts are synthesised by the liver or there is an unusually high metabolic requirement any supplementation of the diet with vitamin C is unnecessary .

Feeding a dog supplemental vitamin C may have a negative affect on the dogs liver and kidneys, it can have the same affect as giving thyroid medication to a dog with a healthy thyroid gland, it can shut the gland down. Anytime the function of a healthy gland it taken over by supplements the gland slowly atrophies.

The effect that supplemental vitamin C has is not the same as the effect of the molecular form that the dog produces naturally. The different forms of synthetic vitamin C end up in the dogs kidneys where they change the uric pH while waiting to be discharged from the dogs body, this change in the natural pH within the kidneys puts additional stress on them and can cause many problems, raised concentrations of urinary oxalate can contribute to the formation of calcium oxolate crystals or stones in the urinary tract. Supplementation can interrupt calcium metabolism aggravating skeletal disease.

''...however we are wary of any form of vitamin C that does not match what animals make naturally in the livers or kidneys'' [vcf]

''Vitamin C is not a necessary component of the diet, at least for all mammals with the exception of the guinea pig, fruit eating bats and higher-order primates. All other species make their own vitamin C by converting gluuronic acid derived from glucose into ascorbic acid'' [BION]
Addie CL1- CL2 CL3 CL4- OAJ

if it moves,- I'll chase it!
Barked: Wed Apr 3, '13 10:10am PST 
Nice Nice general info, thanks for sharing!