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Canine sterilization methods

This forum is for dog lovers seeking everyday advice and suggestions on health-related issues. Remember, however, that advice on a public forum simply can't be a substitute for proper medical attention. Only your vet can say assuredly what is best for your dog.

  
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Daddy

Changing one- mind at a time - APBT style
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:17am PST 
I've been meaning to start a topic like this here, basically an over-view of all known methods of canine sterilization. I think it's important that people know their options. All of the risks and benefits of these surgeries/procedures are assuming the dog is sterilized at 6 months of age (earlier has much more health risks involved as far as desexing and 'neutersol' injections go).

For males and females:

Desexing
------------
Also reffered to as altering or "spaying" and "neutering". The dog is put under anesthetic and his/her sex organs (testicles or ovaries/uterus) are removed.

Benefits of desexing:
--------------------------
*Keeps dog from reproducing
* Reduces the (9%) risk of non-cancerous prostate disorders (males)
* Reduces the risk of mammary cancer (females)
*Nearly eliminates (23%) risk of pyometra (females)
*Removes the (1%-2%) risk of ovarian or testicular cancers.
*Reduces roaming to find a mate (will not, however, keep a desexed male from roaming if he smells a bitch in heat and will not stop roaming for any other reason).
* No more heat cycle (females).

Risks of desexing:
----------------------
* Significantly increased risk of osteocarma (if done before 1 year of age)
* Increases risk of hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 1.6 (males) and 2.2 (females)
* Tripled risk of hypothyroidism
*Increased risk of geriatric cognitive impairment
* Triples the risk of obesity (males), increases the risk of obesity by 1.5 times (females)
* Doubles the (1%) risk of urinary tract cancers (males)
* Increases risk of adverse reactions to vaccines by 27% (males) and 30% (females)
*Causes urinary incontinence in up to 20% of desexed female dogs.
* Increases the risk of persistent or recurring urinary tract infections by a factor of 3-4 (females)
* Increases the risk of recessed vulva, vaginal dermatitis, and vaginitis
*Anesthetic shock
*Surgical complications
*Seperation anxiety
*Increased owner, stranger, and dog-directed aggression
*Increased noise phobias (females)
*Lethargy
* Hair loss and skin infections


For females only:

Hysterectomy
-------------------
A female dog is put under anesthetic and the uterus is removed.

Benefits of hysterectomy:
--------------------------------
* Keeps dog from reproducing
*No more messy heat cycles (females do not bleed while in heat)
*Reduces the risk of mammary cancer (though not as much as spaying)
*Removes the (23%) risk of pyometra
* Allows the dog to keep growth hormones essential to proper growth and development.
* Does not have the health risks that desexing has.
The dog is under anesthetic for less time.

Risks of hysterectomy:
------------------------------
*Anesthetic shock
*Still at (1-2%) risk of ovarian cancer
* Surgical complications

Tubal Ligation
-------------------
A female dog is put under anesthetic and the fallopian tubes are cut or tied.

Benefits of tubal ligation:
-------------------------------
* Dog is made unable to reproduce
*Does not have the same health risks as desexing.
*The surgery can be done safely, even before 6 months without negative effects.
* Allows the dog to keep growth hormones essential to proper growth and development.
* The dog is under anesthetic for less time.

Risks of tubal ligation
---------------------------
* Still at (23%) risk of pyometra
*Still at (1%-2%) risk of ovarian cancer
* Risk of mammary cancer is not reduced

Birth Control pills
------------------------
A pill is given to a female dog to stop her heat cycle.

Benefits of birth control pills:
-------------------------------------
* Keeps dog from becoming pregnant
* Heat cycle is not present while the dog is on the pills
* No risk of anesthetic shock or surgical complications
* Does not have the risks of desexing
* Dog keeps hormones necessary for proper growth and development

Risks of birth control pills
---------------------------------
* Does not recuce (23%) the risk of pyometra or (1-2%) risk of ovarian cancer
*Increased risk of non-lethal uterine infections
* Does not reduce the risk of mammary cancer
* Lethargy while on the pills
* Coat changes
* Weight gain

Cheque drops RX
----------------------
A liquid oral contraception given to a female dog for 30 days prior to the female's heat cycle.

Benefits of cheque drops RX:
------------------------------------
* Keeps dog from becoming pregnant
* Heat cycle is not present while the dog is on the drops
* No risk of anesthetic shock or surgical complications
* Does not have the risks of desexing
* Dog keeps hormones necessary for proper growth and development
* Reduces the smell of the female while in heat (if given *while* the female is in heat)

Risks of cheque drops RX:
---------------------------------
* Infertility
* Does not recuce (23%) the risk of pyometra or (1-2%) risk of ovarian cancer
* Increased risk of non-lethal uterine infections
* Does not reduce the risk of mammary cancer
* Increased risk of liver damage
* Increased urination while on the drops
* Skin problems
* Increased risk of mood swings

Edited by author Thu Jan 10, '08 7:24am PST

[notify]
Brody

The best things- come in little- packages
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:25am PST 
Thanks for the info Daddy!

Do you know if they offer a vasectomy type procedure for males? I've been wondering that for a long time.
[notify]
Daddy

Changing one- mind at a time - APBT style
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:36am PST 
For male dogs only:

Vasectomy
--------------
A male dog is put under anesthetic and the vas deferens are cut or tied.

Benefits of vasectomy:
-----------------------------
* The dog is unable to reproduce
* Dog is under anesthetic for less time
* Hormones essential for proper growth and development are present
* Can be done at an early age without worry of negative effects on health
*Does not have the health risks of desexing.

Risks of vasectomy:
-------------------------
* Dog is still at (1%) risk of testicular cancer
* Does not reduce roaming
* Risk of non-cancerous prostate disorders may not be reduced

Chemical sterilization:
-----------------------------
A chemical sterilent is injected into the testicles of a male dog. Note that some chemical sterilization removes necessary growth hormones while others do not. The risks and benefits of this below are assuming that the growth hormones have *not* been removed.

Benefits of chemical sterilization:
------------------------------------------
* The dog is unable to reproduce
* Can be permanant or temporary (depending on the type of sterilant used)
* No risk of anesthetic shock
* Can be done at an early age without worry of negative effects on health
* Does not have the same health risks as desexing
*No risk of surgical complication

Risks of chemical sterilization:
--------------------------------------
* Risk of adverse reaction to the sterilant
* Dog is still at (1%) risk of testicular cancer
* Does not reduce roaming
* Risk of non-cancerous prostate disorders are not reduced

Neutersol injection:
--------------------------
A sterilant is injected into the testicles of a male dog between 10 weeks and 10 months of age. Cuts the growth hormone by 41% to 52%, and shrinks the testicles and prostate by 77%.

Benefits of neutersol injection:
---------------------------------------
* Makes the dog incapable of reproducing
*No risk of anesthetic shock or surgical complications
* Nearly eliminates the (1%) risk of testicular cancer (by eliminating most of the cells that could potentially cause cancer)
* Reduces roaming and marking behavior

Risks/possible side-effects of neutersol injection:
-------------------------------------------------------- ------
* Lethargy
*Temporary vomitting
* Temporary diahhrea
* Most of the isks of desexing still present (but the risks are reduced)
* Temporary swelling of the testicles within 24 hours of injection.

Edited by author Thu Jan 10, '08 7:25am PST

[notify]

Pugsley

I Might Be Small- But I Have It- All!
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:44am PST 
"*Increased owner, stranger, and dog-directed aggression "

Hmmm... how do you figure? Why would they all of the sudden get aggressive? Doesn't make sense to me. I have NEVER heard of that before.
[notify]
Riley

Too smart for my- own good!

moderator
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:44am PST 
Where is this information coming from?
Nick, CGC, WETX

I like wet, fowl- smelling things
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:56am PST 
"*Increased owner, stranger, and dog-directed aggression "

It's only the initial reaction when they wake up and you tell them what the vet did.
[notify]
The Roo- Crew™- ©®

We go together- like peas &- carrots

moderator
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 11:59am PST 
Please, site your sources, Daddy.
Daddy

Changing one- mind at a time - APBT style
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 12:04pm PST 
Pugsley, it doesn't make dogs aggressive but rather increases the risk for certain types of aggressive behavior, studies from the C-BARQ, AKC Health Foundation have shown this.

References:

Pollari FL, Bonnett BN, Bamsey, SC, Meek, AH, Allen, DG (1996) Postoperative complications of elective surgeries in dogs and cats determined by examining electronic and medical records. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208, 1882-1886

Teske E, Naan EC, van Dijk EM, van Garderen E, Schalken JA. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002 Nov 29;197(1-2):251-5.

Sorenmo KU, Goldschmidt M, Shofer F, Ferrocone J. Immunohistochemical characterization of canine prostatic carcinoma and correlation with castration status and castration time. Vet Comparative Oncology. 2003 Mar; 1 (1): 48

Cohen D, Reif JS, Brodey RS, et al: Epidemiological analysis of the most prevalent sites and types of canine neoplasia observed in a veterinary hospital. Cancer Res 34:2859-2868, 19

Cohen D, Reif JS, Brodey RS, et al: Epidemiological analysis of the most prevalent sites and types of canine neoplasia observed in a veterinary hospital. Cancer Res 34:2859-286

Theilen GH, Madewell BR. Tumors of the genital system. Part II. In:Theilen GH, Madewell BR, eds. Veterinary cancer medicine. 2nd ed.Lea and Febinger, 1987hi583–600

Handbook of Small Animal Practice, 3rd ed

Hayes HM Jr, Pendergrass TW. Canine testicular tumors: epidemiologic features of 410 dogs. Int J Cancer 1976 Oct 15;18(4):482-7

Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. (1998) Host-related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 1998 Jul;156(1):31-9

Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters DJ. Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40.

Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk, CA, Klausner, JS. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Obesity in Adult Dogs from Private US Veterinary Practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med • Vol. 4, No. 2, 2006

Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VE, Withrow SJ. J Vet Intern Med 1992 May; 6(3):145-53

Ferguson HR; Vet Clinics of N Amer: Small Animal Practice; Vol 15, No 3, May 1985

Brodey RS: Canine and feline neoplasia. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 14:309-354

Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VE, Withrow SJ. J Vet Intern Med 1992 May; 6(3):145-53

Hayes A, Harvey H J: Treatment of metastatic granulosa cell tumor in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:1304-1306, 1979

Prymak C, McKee LJ, Goldschmidt MH, Glickman LT. Epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and prognostic characteristics of splenic hemangiosarcoma and splenic hematoma in dogs: 217 cases (1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988 Sep; 193(6):706-12

Ware WA, Hopper, DL. Cardiac Tumors in Dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13:95–103

Panciera DL. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994 Mar 1;204(5):761-7

McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Pride C, Fawcett A, Grassi T, Jones B. Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved. Vet Rec. 2005 May 28;156(22):695-702

Moore GE, Guptill LF, Ward MP, Glickman NW, Faunt KF, Lewis HB, Glickman LT. Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs. JAVMA Vol 227, No 7, Oct 1, 2005

Richter KP, Ling V. Clinical response and urethral pressure profile changes after phenypropanolamine in dogs with primary sphincter incompetence. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985: 187: 605-611

Seguin MA, Vaden SL, Altier C, Stone E, Levine JF (2003) Persistent Urinary Tract Infections and Reinfections in 100 Dogs (1989–1999). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Vol. 17, No. 5 pp. 622–631

Verstegen-Onclin K, Verstegen J. Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering: Effects on the Urogenital System. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control

Johnston SD, Kamolpatana K, Root-Kustritz MV, Johnston GR, Prostatic disorders in the dog. Anim Reprod. Sci Jul 2;60-61:405-415

Dannuccia GA, Martin RB., Patterson-Buckendahl P Ovariectomy and trabecular bone remodeling in the dog. 194-199

Whitehair JG, Vasseur PB, Willits NH. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993 Oct 1;203(7):1016-9

B. Vidoni, I. Sommerfeld-Stur und E. Eisenmenger: Diagnostic and genetic aspects of patellar luxation in small and miniature breed dogs in Austria. Wien.Tierarztl.Mschr. (2005) 92, p170 – 181

Hart BL. Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jul 1;219(1)hi51-6

Ware WA, Hopper DL. Cardiac tumors in dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med 1999 Mar-Apr;13(2):95-103

Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters D, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40
Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. Host related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. VET I < J.>1998 Jul;156(1):31-9.

Obradovich J, Walshaw R, Goullaud E. The influence of castration on the development of prostatic carcinoma in the dog. 43 cases (1978-1985). J Vet Intern Med 1987 Oct-Dec;1(4):183-7

Meuten DJ. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Edn. Iowa State Press, Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa, p. 575

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Dr. Yuying Hsu (Nat. Taiwan Normal University), 2003

Kathy Kruger (Univ. of Pennsylvania)

The Pet Care Trust

The University of Pennsylvania Research Foundation

The Kenneth A. Scott Charitable Trust

Arthur L. “Bud” Johnson Foundation

The Alliance for Contraception in Cats and Dogs

CV Spain, JM Scarlett, KA Houpt, 2004. Long-term risks and benefits of pediatric
gonadectomy in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association . 224(3):
380-387.

CV Spain, JM Scarlett, SM Cully, 2002

"When to neuter dogs and cats", Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 38(4): 482-488.

AJ German. 2006. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. Journal of Nutrition.
136: 1940S-1946S.

PD McGreevy, PC Thompson, C Pride, et al., 2005. Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved. The VeterinaryRecord. 156:695-702.

RJ Padley, DB Dixon, JR Wu-Wong, 2002. Effects of castration on endothelin receptors. Clinical Science. 103(suppl. 48):442S-445S.

E Teske, EC Naan, EM van Dijk, et al., 2002. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiologic evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 197:251-255.

Edited by author Thu Jan 10, '08 7:26am PST

[notify]
Daddy

Changing one- mind at a time - APBT style
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 12:05pm PST 
Sorry it took so long to post references, I was typing all of this out by hand.

Edited by author Wed Jan 9, '08 12:05pm PST

[notify]
Riley

Too smart for my- own good!

moderator
 
 
Barked: Wed Jan 9, '08 1:34pm PST 
First, let me say that I am a scientist... but with that said a lot of these correlation type studies with a bunch of statistics thrown around are what you make of them.

Just because there is a correlation does not equal cause/effect. Also just scanning some of the articles titles, 100 or fewer dogs were used in some of these studies, no way is that a big enough sample to look at. And what kind of dogs were they using? Well bred dogs whose breeding lines were relatively free of cancer? Or dogs of unknown origin?

Look at it this way. A study chooses 100 dogs spayed before the age of 6 months. They choose another 100 unspayed dogs. Let's say 70% of the spayed dogs had cancer while only 30% of the unspayed dogs had cancer. While there may appear to be a correlation between being spayed and cancer, there is no way to tell for sure and probably has more to do with genetics/diet/environment/overall health than being spayed. Just because of the sheer number of dogs who are spayed or unspayed you are likely to find a correlation with anything if you look hard enough... but that doesn't make it true. For humans you can find all sorts of correlations- like 97% of people who commit robberies also chew gum. Does that mean that all people who chew gum will commit robberies? Or that gum chewing causes people to commit robberies? See? You can really twist things when looking at common things practiced by a large percent of the population.

Not bashing the articles or the information Daddy presented. Just saying take it with a grain of salt, just because scientists can spit out statistics, does not make it so.

Edited by author Thu Jan 10, '08 3:55pm PST

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